Medical Illuminations Using Evidence Visualization And Statistical Thinking To Improve Healthcare Book PDF, EPUB Download & Read Online Free

Medical Illuminations
Author: Howard Wainer
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191646032
Pages: 184
Year: 2013-10-10
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Is it sensible to screen for breast or prostate cancer? Should the locations of cancer clusters be made available to the general public? When a doctor wants to perform major surgery and there's no chance for a second opinion, do you agree? The answers to these questions are not as black and white as they may first appear. Medical Illuminations presents thirteen contemporary medical topics, from the diminishing value of mammograms to how to decide if a hip needs to be replaced, to understanding cancer maps. In each case it illustrates how modern tools of statistical thinking and statistical graphics can illuminate our understanding. The goals are to solve some vexing problems that seem perplexing, and to make both the problems and their solutions clear to a non-technical audience. The aim is to ignite in the reader an understanding of statistical thinking, which, though subtle, can be learned without going through arcane mathematics. And, moreover, that learning about how to think in this way provides a huge payoff in the deeper understanding of our complex world.
Visual Revelations
Author: Howard Wainer
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134810539
Pages: 192
Year: 2013-10-08
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To function in modern society complex data must be absorbed and understood at a breakneck pace. The most efficient way to do this is through data-based graphics. This book is an exploration and celebration of graphical methods of data presentation. Visual Revelations' principal purpose is to enlighten, inform, and amuse the reader regarding the shortcomings of common graphical practices; particularly how they can misinform while simultaneously providing models of wonderful graphics. There are many examples of the best graphic practice, graphs that go beyond conveying, facts, and structure to be able to carry emotion as well. Aimed at an educated, lay audience, this volume benefits anyone who must either convey or receive quantitative information, including designers, statisticians, and people in the media.
Routledge International Handbook of Advanced Quantitative Methods in Nursing Research
Author: Susan J. Henly
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113470030X
Pages: 464
Year: 2015-07-24
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Designed to support global development of nursing science, the Routledge International Handbook of Advanced Quantitative Methods in Nursing Research provides a new, comprehensive, and authoritative treatment of advanced quantitative methods for nursing research.? Incorporating past approaches that have served as the foundation for the science, this cutting edge book also explores emerging approaches that will shape its future. Divided into six parts, it covers: -the domain of nursing science - measurement—classical test theory, IRT, clinimetrics, behavioral observation, biophysical measurement -models for prediction and explanation—SEM, general growth mixture models, hierarchical models, analysis of dynamic systems -intervention research—theory-based interventions, causality, third variables, pilot studies, quasi-experimental design, joint models for longitudinal data and time to event -e-science—DIKW paradigm, big data, data mining, omics, FMRI -special topics—comparative effectiveness and meta-analysis, patient safety, economics research in nursing, mixed methods, global research dissemination Written by a distinguished group of international nursing scientists, scientists from related fields, and methodologists, the Handbook is the ideal reference for everyone involved in nursing science, whether they are graduate students, academics, editors and reviewers, or clinical investigators.
Design, User Experience, and Usability: Design Thinking and Methods
Author: Aaron Marcus
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319404091
Pages: 533
Year: 2016-07-04
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The three-volume set LNCS 9746, 9747, and 9748 constitutes the proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Design, User Experience, and Usability, DUXU 2016, held as part of the 18th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, HCII 2016, in Toronto, Canada, in July 2016, jointly with 13 other thematically similar conferences. The total of 1287 papers presented at the HCII 2016 conferences were carefully reviewed and selected from 4354 submissions. These papers address the latest research and development efforts and highlight the human aspects of design and use of computing systems. The papers accepted for presentation thoroughly cover the entire field of Human-Computer Interaction, addressing major advances in knowledge and effective use of computers in a variety of application areas. The total of 157 contributions included in the DUXU proceedings were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in this three-volume set. The 49 papers included in this volume are organized in topical sections on design thinking; user experience design methods and tools; usability and user experience evaluation methods and tools.
Picturing the Uncertain World
Author: Howard Wainer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691137595
Pages: 244
Year: 2009
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In his entertaining and informative book Graphic Discovery, Howard Wainer unlocked the power of graphical display to make complex problems clear. Now he's back with Picturing the Uncertain World, a book that explores how graphs can serve as maps to guide us when the information we have is ambiguous or incomplete. Using a visually diverse sampling of graphical display, from heartrending autobiographical displays of genocide in the Kovno ghetto to the "Pie Chart of Mystery" in a New Yorker cartoon, Wainer illustrates the many ways graphs can be used--and misused--as we try to make sense of an uncertain world. Picturing the Uncertain World takes readers on an extraordinary graphical adventure, revealing how the visual communication of data offers answers to vexing questions yet also highlights the measure of uncertainty in almost everything we do. Are cancer rates higher or lower in rural communities? How can you know how much money to sock away for retirement when you don't know when you'll die? And where exactly did nineteenth-century novelists get their ideas? These are some of the fascinating questions Wainer invites readers to consider. Along the way he traces the origins and development of graphical display, from William Playfair, who pioneered the use of graphs in the eighteenth century, to instances today where the public has been misled through poorly designed graphs. We live in a world full of uncertainty, yet it is within our grasp to take its measure. Read Picturing the Uncertain World and learn how.
Graphic Discovery
Author: Howard Wainer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400849276
Pages: 208
Year: 2013-10-24
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Good graphs make complex problems clear. From the weather forecast to the Dow Jones average, graphs are so ubiquitous today that it is hard to imagine a world without them. Yet they are a modern invention. This book is the first to comprehensively plot humankind's fascinating efforts to visualize data, from a key seventeenth-century precursor--England's plague-driven initiative to register vital statistics--right up to the latest advances. In a highly readable, richly illustrated story of invention and inventor that mixes science and politics, intrigue and scandal, revolution and shopping, Howard Wainer validates Thoreau's observation that circumstantial evidence can be quite convincing, as when you find a trout in the milk. The story really begins with the eighteenth-century origins of the art, logic, and methods of data display, which emerged, full-grown, in William Playfair's landmark 1786 trade atlas of England and Wales. The remarkable Scot singlehandedly popularized the atheoretical plotting of data to reveal suggestive patterns--an achievement that foretold the graphic explosion of the nineteenth century, with atlases published across the observational sciences as the language of science moved from words to pictures. Next come succinct chapters illustrating the uses and abuses of this marvelous invention more recently, from a murder trial in Connecticut to the Vietnam War's effect on college admissions. Finally Wainer examines the great twentieth-century polymath John Wilder Tukey's vision of future graphic displays and the resultant methods--methods poised to help us make sense of the torrent of data in our information-laden world.
Uneducated Guesses
Author: Howard Wainer
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400839572
Pages: 200
Year: 2011-08-08
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Uneducated Guesses challenges everything our policymakers thought they knew about education and education reform, from how to close the achievement gap in public schools to admission standards for top universities. In this explosive book, Howard Wainer uses statistical evidence to show why some of the most widely held beliefs in education today--and the policies that have resulted--are wrong. He shows why colleges that make the SAT optional for applicants end up with underperforming students and inflated national rankings, and why the push to substitute achievement tests for aptitude tests makes no sense. Wainer challenges the thinking behind the enormous rise of advanced placement courses in high schools, and demonstrates why assessing teachers based on how well their students perform on tests--a central pillar of recent education reforms--is woefully misguided. He explains why college rankings are often lacking in hard evidence, why essay questions on tests disadvantage women, why the most grievous errors in education testing are not made by testing organizations--and much more. No one concerned about seeing our children achieve their full potential can afford to ignore this book. With forceful storytelling, wry insight, and a wealth of real-world examples, Uneducated Guesses exposes today's educational policies to the light of empirical evidence, and offers solutions for fairer and more viable future policies.
The Little, Brown compact handbook
Author: Jane E. Aaron, Little, Brown and Company
Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman
Pages: 424
Year: 1998
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Fighting for Life
Author: S. Josephine Baker
Publisher: New York Review of Books
ISBN: 1590177061
Pages: 264
Year: 2013
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"New York's lower east side was said to be the most densely populated square mile on the face of the earth in the 1890s. City health inspectors called the neighborhood "the suicide ward" and referred to one particular tenement--in an official Health Department report, no less--as an "out and out hog pen." Diarrhea epidemics raged each summer, killing thousands of city children. Sweatshop babies with smallpox and typhus dozed in garment heaps destined for fashionable Broadway shops. Desperate mothers paced the streets to soothe their feverish children, and white mourning cloths hung from every building. A third of children living in the slums died before their fifth birthday. By 1911, the child death rate had fallen sharply and The New York Times hailed the city as the healthiest on earth. In this witty and highly personal autobiography, public health crusader Dr. Sara Josephine Baker explains how this remarkable transformation was achieved. By the time she retired from the New York City Health Department in 1923, Baker was famous worldwide for saving the lives of 90,000 children. The public health programs Baker developed, many still in use today, have probably saved the lives of millions more. She also fought for women's suffrage, toured Russia in the 1930s, and captured "Typhoid" Mary Malone, twice. She was also an astute observer of her times, and Fighting for Life is one of the most honest, compassionate memoirs of American medicine ever written"--Provided by publisher.
Virtual Reality
Author: Pietro Cipresso, Silvia Serino
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
ISBN: 163321933X
Pages: 321
Year: 2014-01-01
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Suppose I am a blind man, and I use a stick. I go tap, tap, tap. Where do I start? Is my mental system bounded at the handle of the stick? Is it bounded by my skin? Does it start halfway up the stick? Does it start at the tip of the stick? (Bateson, 1972:459; Form, Substance and Difference) One of the most amazing capacities of the human mind is its ability to go beyond its boundaries. The well-known example of the blind man by Gregory Bateson helps us understand how our mind is able to expand its potentiality thanks to the use of a tool. This famous example demonstrates two specific features that characterize the relationship between the human mind and the use of tool. From a neuropsychological point of view, the tool is integrated in near space, extending it to the end point of the instrument. From a phenomenological point of view, we are present in the tool because we can use it in an intuitive way to realize our intentions. As Riva and Mantovani suggested, there is also another type of relationship between mind and technology, namely the second-order mediated action. In this case, the subject uses the body to control a distal tool that controls a different one to exert an action upon an external object. An example of a second-order mediated action is what happens with Virtual Reality (VR): I use my body to move an avatar (a distal tool) to exert an action upon an external object (a virtual environment). On one side, the outcome of this process further extends the space of action. From an experiential viewpoint, when interacting in a virtual space, we are also present in the distal virtual environment. On these theoretical bases, it is clear what makes VR development distinctively important is that it represents more than a simple technology in different domains of human society. In recent years, the field of VR has grown immensely. Practical applications for the use of this advanced technology encompasses many fields, from personnel training supported by interactive 3D images in industrial centers, to the use of interactive virtual environments for marketing purposes. One of the newest fields to benefit from the advances in VR technology is medicine and healthcare. Impressive advances in technology, coupled with a reduction in the economic costs have supported the development of more usable, useful, and accessible VR systems that can uniquely target a range of physical, psychological, and cognitive clinical targets and research questions. The aim of the book Virtual Reality-Technologies, Medical Applications, and Challenges is twofold: (1) to provide a critical overview of the most interesting medical applications of VR technologies and (2) to reflect on the future challenges in this growing field.
Meta-Analysis in Medicine and Health Policy
Author: Dalene Stangl, Donald A. Berry
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203909933
Pages: 414
Year: 2000-04-20
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This remarkable text raises the analysis of data in health sciences and policy to new heights of refinement and applicability by introducing cutting-edge meta-analysis strategies while reviewing more commonly used techniques. Each chapter builds on sound principles, develops methodologies to solve statistical problems, and presents concrete applications used by experienced medical practitioners and health policymakers. Written by more than 30 celebrated international experts, Meta-Analysis in Medicine and Health Policy employs copious examples and pictorial presentations to teach and reinforce biostatistical techniques more effectively and poses numerous open questions of medical and health policy research.
Nonlinear Analysis in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research
Author: Tobias A. Mattei
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889199967
Year: 2016-10-31
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Although nonlinear dynamics have been mastered by physicists and mathematicians for a long time (as most physical systems are inherently nonlinear in nature), the recent successful application of nonlinear methods to modeling and predicting several evolutionary, ecological, physiological, and biochemical processes has generated great interest and enthusiasm among researchers in computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Additionally, in the last years it has been demonstrated that nonlinear analysis can be successfully used to model not only basic cellular and molecular data but also complex cognitive processes and behavioral interactions. The theoretical features of nonlinear systems (such unstable periodic orbits, period-doubling bifurcations and phase space dynamics) have already been successfully applied by several research groups to analyze the behavior of a variety of neuronal and cognitive processes. Additionally the concept of strange attractors has lead to a new understanding of information processing which considers higher cognitive functions (such as language, attention, memory and decision making) as complex systems emerging from the dynamic interaction between parallel streams of information flowing between highly interconnected neuronal clusters organized in a widely distributed circuit and modulated by key central nodes. Furthermore, the paradigm of self-organization derived from the nonlinear dynamics theory has offered an interesting account of the phenomenon of emergence of new complex cognitive structures from random and non-deterministic patterns, similarly to what has been previously observed in nonlinear studies of fluid dynamics. Finally, the challenges of coupling massive amount of data related to brain function generated from new research fields in experimental neuroscience (such as magnetoencephalography, optogenetics and single-cell intra-operative recordings of neuronal activity) have generated the necessity of new research strategies which incorporate complex pattern analysis as an important feature of their algorithms. Up to now nonlinear dynamics has already been successfully employed to model both basic single and multiple neurons activity (such as single-cell firing patterns, neural networks synchronization, autonomic activity, electroencephalographic measurements, and noise modulation in the cerebellum), as well as higher cognitive functions and complex psychiatric disorders. Similarly, previous experimental studies have suggested that several cognitive functions can be successfully modeled with basis on the transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such studies have demonstrated that it is possible to represent typical decision-making paradigms of neuroeconomics by dynamic models governed by ordinary differential equations with a finite number of possibilities at the decision points and basic heuristic rules which incorporate variable degrees of uncertainty. This e-book has include frontline research in computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology involving applications of nonlinear analysis, especially regarding the representation and modeling of complex neural and cognitive systems. Several experts teams around the world have provided frontline theoretical and experimental contributions (as well as reviews, perspectives and commentaries) in the fields of nonlinear modeling of cognitive systems, chaotic dynamics in computational neuroscience, fractal analysis of biological brain data, nonlinear dynamics in neural networks research, nonlinear and fuzzy logics in complex neural systems, nonlinear analysis of psychiatric disorders and dynamic modeling of sensorimotor coordination. Rather than a comprehensive compilation of the possible topics in neuroscience and cognitive research to which non-linear may be used, this e-book intends to provide some illustrative examples of the broad range of
Bayesian Biostatistics
Author: Donald A. Berry, Dalene Stangl
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482273128
Pages: 704
Year: 1996-02-13
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This work provides descriptions, explanations and examples of the Bayesian approach to statistics, demonstrating the utility of Bayesian methods for analyzing real-world problems in the health sciences. The work considers the individual components of Bayesian analysis.;College or university bookstores may order five or more copies at a special student price, available on request from Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Systems Science and Population Health
Author: Abdulrahman M. El-Sayed, Sandro Galea
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190492414
Pages: 304
Year: 2017-02-01
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Population health is complex and multileveled, encompassing dynamic interactions between cells, societies, and everything in between. Our typical approach to studying population health, however, remains oriented around a reductionist approach to conceptualizing, empirically analyzing, and intervening to improve population health. The trouble is that interventions founded on simplifying a complex world often do not work, sometimes yielding failure or, even worse, harm. The difficult truth is that "silver bullet" health science often fails, and understanding these failures can help us improve our approach to health science, and, ultimately, population health. SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND POPULATION HEALTH employs principles from across a range of sciences to refine the way we understand population health. By augmenting traditional analytic approaches with new tools like machine learning, microsimulation, and social network analysis, population health can be studied as a dynamic and complex system. This allows us to understand population health as a complex whole, offering new insights and perspectives that stand to improve the health of the public. This text offers the first educational and practical guide to this forward-thinking approach. Comprising 17 chapters from the vanguard of population health, epidemiology, computer science, and medicine, this book offers a three-part introduction to the subject: · An intellectual and conceptual history of systems science as it intersects with population health · Concise, introductory overviews of important and emerging methodological tools in systems science, including systems dynamics, agent-based modeling, microsimulation, social network analysis, and machine-learning-all with relevant examples drawn from population health literature · An exploration of future implications for systems science and its applications to our understanding of population health issues For researchers, students, and practitioners, SYSTEMS SCIENCE AND POPULATION HEALTH redefines many of the foundational elements of how we understand population health. It should not be missed.
Lighthouse Adventures
ISBN: 1892384019
Pages: 208
Year: 1999
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Thrilling and often incredible stories of life on the Great Lakes.